American Battlefield Trust. “Cherokees at Pea Ridge.” American Battlefield Trust, February 4, 2009. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/cherokees-pea-ridge.
Bark, Lindsey. “Cherokee Nation Removes 2 Confederate Monuments from Capitol Square.” The Cherokee Phoenix, June 16, 2020. https://www.cherokeephoenix.org/news/cherokee-nation-removes-2-confederate-monuments-from-capitol-square/article_dec30c2c-52c2-5ff1-a837-c56158ff2f96.html.
Chavez, Will. “1839 Cherokee Constitution Born from Act of Union.” cherokeephoenix.org. Accessed March 7, 2021. https://www.cherokeephoenix.org/news/1839-cherokee-constitution-born-from-act-of-union/article_5621e3f8-f65c-5990-8af2-c889b21b0abc.html.
Cherokee Nation. “Constitution and Laws of the Cherokee Nation.” National Council, 1892. https://www.loc.gov/law/help/american-indian-consts/PDF/28014172.pdf.
Fortney, Jeff. “Lest We Remember: Civil War Memory and Commemoration among the Five Tribes.” The American Indian Quarterly 36, no. 4 (2012): 525–44.
Gallagher, Gary W., and Joan Waugh. The American War: A History of the Civil War Era. State College, PA: Flips Learning, 2015.
Laurence M. Hauptman. 1995. Between Two Fires. Free Press. http://archive.org/details/betweentwofiresa00haup.
Inniss, Lolita Buckner. “Cherokee Freedmen and the Color of Belonging.” Columbia Journal of Race and Law 5, no. 2 (October 19, 2015): 100–118. https://doi.org/10.7916/cjrl.v5i2.2308.
Littlefield, Daniel F., and Lonnie E. Underhill. “Slave ‘Revolt’ in the Cherokee Nation, 1842.” American Indian Quarterly 3, no. 2 (1977): 121. https://doi.org/10.2307/1184177.
Minges, Patrcik. “Slavery in the Cherokee Nation : The Keetoowah Society and the Defining of a People, 1855-1867,” 2003.
Reed, Julie. “Family and Nation: Cherokee Orphan Care, 1835–1903.” University of Nebraska Press 34, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 312–43.
Sturm, Circe. “Blood Politics, Racial Classification, and Cherokee National Identity: The Trials and Tribulations of the Cherokee Freedmen.” American Indian Quarterly 22, no. 1/2 (1998): 230–58.
Image: Confederate delegates at Washington, D.C. From left to right: John Rollin Ridge, Saladin Ridge Watie (Stand Watie’s son), Richard Fields (formerly of Drew’s regiment), Elias Cornelious Boudinot, and William Penn Adair. Credit: University of Oklahoma Press and Archives and Manuscripts Division, Oklahoma Historical Society.